The Sudan is a wll‐known country ‐ particularly for many of its individual features, e.g. its large area, its three different climatic zones, and its mixed landscape but principally for its ethnic mixture.
The Arabs invaded, (among other eastern and northern African areas) north Sudan in 642 A.D. They moved from northern and eastern regions of Sudan in all directions and formed the separation line between Northern and Southern Sudan that exists to this day. They conquered and religiously and culturally dominated at that time the existing Kingdoms and Sultanates ‐ especially those of Kush, Meroe (Nubians), the Funj
Kingdom and partially Fur in western Sudan. Arabic tribes spread throughout most parts of Sudan, intermarried and provided the dominant culture and languages of most African tribes that had preexisted in that region within a short period of time.
Today, the Arabic culture and language (with Islam as the principal religion) predominate in the northern part of Sudan. While the old Nubian languages of Sikut, Mahas, Danagla and Shigiah gradually died out (however those of Beja and Hadandwa still remaining in use), for many western Sudanese tribes like the Fur, Zagawa, Hausa and Nuba ,and especially southern Sudanese tribes like Shiluk, Dinka and Nuer life continued largely uninfluenced by Arabic culture and language. Sudan’s different ethnic groups mostly co‐existed harmoniously, in spite of the arrogance of the Arabic speaking and orientated Sudanese (mostly in northern Sudan) and the discriminatory behavior of this majority towards others Sudanese belonging to ethnic groups of non‐Arab origin, as well against to western Sudanese coming from Darfur and the Nuba Mountains. Apart from the long-running southern Sudan conflict and some tribal clashes along the border areas between North and South Sudan, there was generally peace. Being "all Sudanese" and regarding Sudan as being one country and one people was out of the question and not a matter for discussion for the Sudanese in north Sudan or in southern Sudan or in other Sudanese regions. Unfortunately, this longstanding lack of Sudanese nationalism changed rapidly
within less than a quarter of a century.
The early 1980’ witnessed increasing Islamic radical feeling in the Middle East region and many voices started to call loudly to go back to Islamic roots and culture. This movement, led in such countries like Sudan, (with its ethnic and religiously mixed groups) in the first stage to religious intolerance. mistreatment of minorities, harassment, discrimination and ethnical motivated hate and violence. This Islamic radicalized orientation spread and followed blindly and in a hypocritical way when the Sunnites mistakenly adopted Shiite beliefs. Political motivated and radically applied Islamisation spread throughout all aspects of daily life and resulted in a hostile environment not only involving non‐Moslems minorities in Sudan like the Copts, Greeks and other religious groups but also against non‐Arab Moslems like the Darfuris.
This tendency makes clear that the regime in Sudan could successfully brainwash the majority of northern Sudanese so that their so‐called Islamic‐Arabic fundamentalism and nationalism overwhelmed their encompassing pan‐Sudanese feeling that kept this huge multicultural country united for decades. As result of the ethnic falling‐apart, there followed the separation of the southern States of Sudan to create a new separated republic of southern Sudan. The carelessness and thoughtlessness of the northern Sudanese and the delight of the southern Sudanese in separation raises fear of separations of further regions of Sudan especially of the Darfur region. The regime and some north Sudanese are eager to create a pure Islamic, primarily Arab country whatever it costs. If the Sudanese permit this tendency to continue , we will soon see the separation of further Sudanese
regions like Darfur, Nuba‐Mountains and also Eastern Sudan to create newly independent countries or to join neighbouring countries with whom they share similar ethnic backgrounds like the situation involving western Sudan with Chad.